Monkeypox Timeline
Environment

Monkeypox Timeline

A frequently updated tracker of emerging developments from the beginning of the 2022 monkeypox outbreak

CDC biologists a and Congolese scientist wear blue surgical gowns and respirators, as they examine animals caught in the jungle who may carry the MonkeyPox virus, in Manfuette, Republic of Congo on August 29, 2017
CDC biologists and a Congolese scientist examine animals caught in the jungle that may carry the monkeypox virus, in Manfuette, Republic of Congo, on August 29, 2017. Melina Mara/The Washington Post via Getty Images

The first human case of monkeypox—a rare zoonotic virus that can transmit from animals to people—was recorded in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1970. Since then, the disease has become endemic in parts of West Africa, although outbreaks have been known to occur in other places, such as the United States in 2003 and now in over 60 non-endemic countries. This timeline is a running account, gathered in real-time, of key events in the 2022 outbreak as they unfold. We will be updating this timeline frequently as new developments are reported. You can access all of Think Global Health's monkeypox coverage here.  

Status as of December 2, 2022 

  • Total Cases Confirmed Globally: 81,608
  • Total Deaths Confirmed Globally: 59
  • Number of Countries with Confirmed Cases: 110

Ongoing Timeline of Events Follows 

Confirmed Monkeypox Cases Since January 2022

Weeks of November 18 to December 1: African Continent Receives First Batch of Vaccines; WHO Recommends New Disease Name; Europe Secures More Vaccine Doses

December 1

  • The continent of Africa will receive 50,000 monkeypox vaccine doses as a donation from South Korea. This will be Africa's first batch of vaccines received since the public health emergency of international concern was announced in July 2022. 

November 28

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a new name for monkeypox. Over the coming year, WHO will phase out "monkeypox" in favor of the preferred "mpox." 

November 18

  • The European Commission's Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Authority secures an additional two million doses of the monkeypox vaccine from manufacturer Bavarian Nordic. 

Weeks of November 4 to November 17: New York City Phases Out Vaccine Vans; FDA Authorizes Monkeypox Test; Bavarian Nordic Sells Vaccine

November 17

  • New York City phases out its monkeypox vaccine vans, which administered vaccinations outside nightclubs and sex parties. The local department of health will continue to offer vaccinations through sexual health clinics.

November 15

  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration issues an emergency authorization for a monkeypox test pioneered by Swiss company Roche.

November 9

  • Danish pharmaceutical company Bavarian Nordic reportedly sells its monkeypox vaccine for between $70 and $300 per dose, pushing its revenues to all-time highs. 

Weeks of October 21 to November 3: Pre-Symptomatic Transmission May Be Possible; U.S. Death Toll Hits Ten; Ireland Purchases More Vaccine Doses

November 2

  • BMJ study using data from the United Kingdom shows that monkeypox may be able to spread before symptoms become visible. 

October 26

  • The U.S. death toll from monkeypox hits 10. More than a quarter of global deaths from the ongoing monkeypox outbreak have been in the United States.

October 25

  • Ireland announces the purchase of another 15,000 monkeypox vaccine doses. 

Week of October 14 to October 20: Clade I Variant Spreading in Central Africa; China Starts Work on Monkeypox Vaccine; Mexico's Vaccine Shortage Pushes Citizens to Seek Vaccine Abroad

October 20

  • Reports warn that the Clade I monkeypox variant, which is ten times deadlier than the globally-circulating Clade II variant, is spreading in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
  • China National Biotec Group, a vaccine manufacturer owned by the Chinese government, starts work on a vaccine using a monkeypox virus sample isolated from the current outbreak. The vaccine being deployed now is a repurposed shot originally engineered to target smallpox. 

October 17

  • Due to a domestic shortage, Mexican citizens are traveling abroad to seek the vaccine.

Week of October 7 to October 13: Ireland to Open Vaccination Centers; United States and Democratic Republic of the Congo Collaborating on Clinical Trial

October 12

  • The Republic of Ireland announces plans to open eleven monkeypox vaccination centers across the country, aiming to vaccinate high priority groups by December. 
  • The U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's National Institute for Biomedical Research begin a clinical trial to test the efficacy of monkeypox therapeutic TPOXX. 

Week of September 30 to October 6: Spikes in Sudanese Refugee Camps; U.S. CDC Announces U.S. Outbreak is Slowing; U.S. HHS Expands Workforce Authorization for Vaccine

October 5

  • A new report from the Kaiser Family Foundations shows monkeypox rates among Black people in the United States are over five times those of White people.  

October 4

  • The United Nations High Commission for Refugees reports a spike in monkeypox cases in Sudanese refugee camps. 

October 3

  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services expands the workforce authorized to administer the monkeypox vaccine to include paramedics, dentists, nurses, midwives, veterinarians, and other healthcare workers. 

October 1

  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that the domestic outbreak is slowing, but monkeypox will likely continue to circulate at low levels in the United States.   

Week of September 23 to September 29: Early U.S. Data Suggests Vaccine Is Effective; WHO Releases Taxonomy to Target Monkeypox Misinformation; UK Announces Second-Dose Eligibility

September 28

  • Preliminary data suggests the Jynneos vaccine for monkeypox is effective in slowing infection, but U.S. health authorities advise at-risk individuals should continue taking precautions.  
  • Pharmaceutical company Siga Tech wins a contract bid from the U.S. Department of Defense for its anti-monkeypox therapeutic TPOXX. 

September 26

  • The World Health Organization releases a public health social listening taxonomy for monkeypox conversations in an effort to address misinformation surrounding the disease and its spread.  

September 23

  • The United Kingdom Health Security Agency announces that at-risk individuals will be eligible for a second dose of the monkeypox vaccine.  

Week of September 16 to September 22: Canada Orders More Vaccines; Household Contacts May Contribute to Monkeypox Exposure; Officials Warn Against TPOXX Overprescription

September 20

  • Danish pharmaceutical company Bavarian Nordic has expanded its contract with Canada's public health agency to provide monkeypox vaccines. The new agreement will see a majority of the doses delivered in 2023. 

September 19

  • Newly-identified pediatric cases spotlight the role of household contacts and surface contamination in monkeypox exposure and infection. 

September 16

  • Health officials in the United States have urged physicians against overprescribing therapeutic TPOXX in an effort to prevent viral mutations that counteract the drug's efficacy. 

Week of September 9 to September 15: Still No Vaccines for Africa; Community Vaccine Outreach in the United States; New Study on How Monkeypox Affects Brain Health

September 14

  • African health leaders highlight disparities in vaccine equity between Western countries and African ones, and worry interest in fighting monkeypox in Africa will evaporate as cases decline in the West. 

September 13

  • United States rolls out a more localized vaccination strategy to reach vulnerable populations in smaller venues. 

September 12

  • Community health workers push to get monkeypox vaccines to Black men who have sex with men in North Carolina, where Black people make up 67 percent of monkeypox cases but only 27 percent of those vaccinated.
  • Physician Demetre Daskalakis evaluates the U.S monkeypox outbreak one month into his job as deputy coordinator for the White House Monkeypox Response.

September 9

  • A new study suggests monkeypox may cause neurological damage, including brain inflammation. A small but noticeable proportion of people (two to three percent) with monkeypox who participated in the study became very unwell and developed serious neurological problems. 

Week of September 2 to September 8: Latin American Activists Call for Better Monkeypox Response; Cases Decline in Spain; First Cases in Hong Kong and Egypt

September 8

  • The WHO Regional Director for Africa, Matshidiso Moeti reports 524 confirmed cases and 12 deaths across 11 African countries. Nigeria is the leader in cases, followed by the Democratic Republic of Congo.  
  • U.S. universities use lessons of COVID-19 to help prevent monkeypox spread on university campuses. 
  • Egypt reports first case. 

September 7

  • The Director of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) highlighted that over 30,000 cases have been reported in the region, making the Americas the global epicenter of the pandemic. Most cases are concentrated in the United States, Brazil, Peru and Canada, and primarily among men who have sex with men, although at least 145 cases have been reported in women and 54 among people under the age of 18.
  • PAHO secures 100,00 vaccine doses for Latin America and the Caribbean. 

September 6

  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) said it will significantly expand the number of distribution locations for monkeypox vaccines and Tpoxx treatment through a new $20 million contract with AmerisourceBergen Corp. More than 352,600 people in the United States have been vaccinated against monkeypox with the JYNNEOS vaccine.
  • According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, people of color make up more than two-thirds of reported cases in the nation with 29 percent of cases reported among Hispanic people and 37.8 percent reported among Black people. However, only 22.1 percent of first doses of the JYNNEOS vaccine have been administered to Hispanic Americans and 10.4 percent have been given to Black Americans, data from the CDC shows.

  • Hong Kong reports its first case of monkeypox.

September 5

  • Monkeypox infections decline in Spain. 

September 2

  • Monkeypox cases in the United States may be declining due to vaccination campaigns and altered sexual practices, but experts urge caution.

September 1

  • Virologists suggest the increased prevalence of infectious diseases, including monkeypox, could be related to climate change because the changing environmental conditions make it easier for viruses to spread. 
  • Latin American rights activists call on their governments for a more robust monkeypox response, accusing them of underreporting cases. Latin American currently accounts for approximately 15 percent of confirmed cases worldwide. 

 

Week of August 26 to September 1: First Monkeypox Death in United States; Very Few in U.S Have Received Full Course of the Monkeypox Vaccine 

August 30

  • United States rolls out monkeypox vaccine equity program designed to make vaccines more accessible to low-income and minority communities. 
  • First U.S. death from monkeypox recorded in Texas. The patient was severely immunocompromised.
  • World Health Organization states monkeypox can be eliminated in Europe. 

August 29

  • United States to provide $11 million in funding to support the packaging of the JYNNEOS monkeypox vaccine at Bavarian Nordic's U.S.-based manufacturing facility.

August 26

  • Daily totals of new monkeypox cases decline in New York City from about 70 a day to 50. 
  • Doctors report seeing monkeypox patients with a variety of symptoms that are not typical of monkeypox and some that have no symptoms. 
  • CDC Director Rochelle Walensky reports that almost 97 percent of monkeypox doses administered in the United States have been first doses, meaning very few have receeved a full course of the vaccine. 

Week of August 19 to August 25: Vaccine Tourism in Europe; WHO Reports Decline in Global Cases; Bavarian Nordic to Boost Production

August 25

  • WHO reports 21 percent decline in monkeypox cases globally.

August 24

  • Vaccine manufacturer Bavarian Nordic vows to boost vaccine production to make up for shortfall.
  • Switzerland orders 400,000 monkeypox vaccines.

August 23

  • Mexico reports the death of an HIV-positive man from monkeypox.
  • Cuba reports the death of a man from Italy who died of monkeypox.

August 22

August 20

  • Indonesia reports first case of monkeypox in someone who traveled from abroad. 

August 19

  • European Union backs 'vaccine dosing' strategy to conserve vaccines. 

Week of August 12 to August 18: WHO Solicits Suggestions for New Monkeypox Name from Public; Iran Reports First Case; Spain Asks European Medicines Agency to Approve 'Dose-Spreading' Vaccination Strategy

August 18

  • White House announces new actions to combat monkeypox outbreak, namely making more doses of the JYNNEOS vaccine and the antiviral treatment Tpoxx available and targeting measures toward areas with large LGBTQ+ populations.

August 17

  • European Union countries see spike in vaccine tourism as inequitable distribution drives people to cross borders in pursuit of vaccination. 

August 16

  • Countries around the world struggle to buy monkeypox vaccines in sufficient numbers due to supply chain constraints. These constraints are felt acutely in Africa, where so far no vaccines are available. 
  • World Health Organization (WHO) opens the process for renaming monkeypox to the public. 
  • Iran reports first case of monkeypox. 

August 15

  • France reports first suspected case of human-to-dog transmission of monkeypox.
  • Cases appear to be slowing in New York, although they are still rising. 
  • A new study conducted in Spain suggests that smallpox vaccines may not provide life-long immunity from monkeypox.

August 12

  • Canada's chief public health officer signals that the spread of monkeypox may be slowing but that public health authorities in Canada will remain vigilant. 

August 11

  • Spain asks the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to approve the 'dose-spreading' strategy for administering monkeypox vaccines in an attempt to make vaccines available to more people. 

Week of August 5 to August 11: U.S. Approves New 'Dose-Spreading' Vaccine Strategy; Monkeys Attacked in Brazil; Spread Slows in UK

August 10

  • WHO asks people not to attack monkeys after several monkeys were poisoned or stoned in Brazil. Despite its name, monkeypox is spread through human-to-human transmission and not by monkeys. 
  • The European Medicines Agency (EMA) considers 'dose-spreading' strategy approved by the United States, but the WHO has called for more data and trials before such a strategy is used. 

August 9 

  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved a new way of administering monkeypox vaccines in which each person would receive a smaller dose in an effort to make a limited number of vaccines stretch to more people. The new method, which was authorized under an Emergency Use Authorization, has elicited controversy among experts. 
  • United States purchases $26 million worth of Sigma VI's intravenous monkeypox treatment Tpoxx.
  • Police in Washington, DC are investigating an assault on two gay men in which anti-gay slurs and references to monkeypox were used as a hate crime.

August 8

  • A California wastewater surveillance system used to track COVID-19 outbreaks has been adapted to track monkeypox as well. 
  • Italy begins its vaccination campaign against monkeypox.

August 5

  • A daycare worker in Illinois tested positive for monkeypox, causing a scare about the potential exposure of children to the virus. None of the children were infected, but all were given the JYNNEOS vaccine, which is available to men who have sex with men (MSM) and close contacts of those who have been infected. 
  • The UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) says there were "early signs" that the monkeypox outbreak is plateauing across the country and that its expansion has slowed.

Week of July 29 to August 4: First deaths in Brazil, Ghana, India, and Spain; U.S. Declares Public Health Emergency; Philippines and Sudan Report First Cases

August 4

  • The United States declares monkeypox a public health emergency.
  • Experts debate how to address stigma and the fact that monkeypox has so far primarily affected men who have sex with men (MSM) and members of the LGBTQ+ community and whether or not limiting one's sexual partners is a useful strategy for preventing the spread of the virus. The World Health Organization (WHO) has also noted that in Africa, where the disease is endemic, outbreaks are not concentrated in MSM communities and affect a wider segment of the population. 
  • New Zealand placed on waitlist for monkeypox vaccines.

August 3

  • Japanese pharmaceutical company KM Biologics Co sees spike in interest in its monkeypox vaccine from other countries. 

August 2

  • Cyprus reports first monkeypox case.
  • The White House appoints a monkeypox coordinator.

August 1

  • World Health Organization (WHO) encounters difficulties in its efforts to rename monkeypox. 
  • India confirms its first monkeypox death in the state of Kerala. 
  • Ghana confirms its first monkeypox death. 
  • Sudan reports its first monkeypox case. 
  • Doctors and activists in Brazil and Mexico criticize their countries' slow response to the monkeypox outbreak.

July 30

  • New York City declares monkeypox a public health emergency.
  • Brazil and Spain report two monkeypox deaths, the first fatal cases in Europe. 

July 29

  • Philippines reports its first monkeypox case. 
  • Japan approves KM Biologics Co smallpox vaccine for the treatment of monkeypox

Week of July 22 to July 28: WHO Declares Monkeypox a Global Health Emergency; Japan Reports First Case; EU Approves Bavarian Nordic Vaccine

July 28

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announces the release of 780,000 vaccines.
  • WHO Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus advised members of the men who have sex with men (MSM) community to limit their exposure to the virus by reducing their number of sex partners and reconsidering sex with new partners.
  • Australia declares monkeypox a disease of national significance, which opens the door to a more coordinated response. 
  • Thai researchers examine wastewater to track monkeypox.

July 27

  • France opens dedicated monkeypox vaccination center in Paris and has vaccinated more than 6,000 people nationwide. 
  • U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to designate monkeypox a nationally notifiable condition starting August 1, which updates criteria for reporting data on cases by states to the agency and would allow the agency to monitor and respond to monkeypox even after the current outbreak recedes.

July 26

  • United States becomes country with the most recorded monkeypox cases, surpassing Spain, according to data from the CDC.
  • Biden Administration floats $7 billion funding estimate to Congress to mount a response to the nation's monkeypox outbreak.

July 25 

  • Japan records first case and steps up preparations for an outbreak. 
  • European Union approves Bavarian Nordic vaccine for monkeypox. 
  • WHO warns that monkeypox could soon spread beyond MSM communities to other portions of the population.  
  • Gaps and delays in collecting data are hindering the response to monkeypox, according to the CDC. 

July 24 

  • Experts are divided over predictions about how monkeypox will spread. Some fear that the virus will become entrenched like some other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) while others believe it can still be contained.  
  • Sexual health advocates in the United Kingdom call on Britain's National Health Service (NHS) to ramp up monkeypox vaccination. 

July 23 

  • WHO declares monkeypox outbreak a global health emergency, a designation used to describe only two other diseases, COVID-19 and Polio. The decision is significant in part because WHO Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus overruled a panel of advisers, who could not come to a consensus and also because it opens the door for a coordinated international response to fight the virus.  

July 22 

  • CDC announces two cases of monkeypox in children in the United States.  

Week of July 16 to July 21: WHO Emergency Committee Reconvenes; Thailand Reports First Case; Germany to Prioritize First Dose of Vaccine

July 21 

  • WHO Emergency Committee reconvenes to discuss monkeypox and whether it constitutes a public health emergency as cases top 14,000. 
  • Germany's vaccine advisory instructs medical professionals to use all available monkeypox vaccines to prioritize first doses.  
  • Thailand reports first case.  

July 20 

  • LGBTQ activists call on the United States for more attention and resources to be devoted to monkeypox. 

July 19 

  • Experts suggest that the window to contain monkeypox may have closed and that it could become endemic in MSM communities. 

July 18 

  • U.S. monkeypox patients report difficulty accessing pain and symptom relief for severe cases.  

Week of July 9 to July 15: India, Russia, and Saudi Arabia Report First Cases; CDC Plans to Use Controversial Drug

July 15 

  • India reports first case of monkeypox, marking the virus's spread to the South Asia region. 
  • U.S. health-care workers complain of daunting bureaucracy impeding treatment of monkeypox. 
  • CDC plans to use smallpox drug Tembexa to treat monkeypox, despite the drug's serious side effects. 

July 14 

  • Saudi Arabia reports first case. 

July 13 

  • A New York City government website to facilitate monkeypox vaccination crashes due to large demand. 

July 12 

  • Russia reports first case of monkeypox. 

July 11 

  • United Kingdom downgrades its classification of the monkeypox outbreak from "high consequence infectious disease" but intends to remain vigilant.  

Week of July 2 to July 8: WHO Revisits Earlier Decision About Whether Monkeypox Constitutes a Public Health Emergency After Two Deaths in Africa; United States Expands Testing and Vaccination

July 8 

  • Demand for Monkeypox Vaccines in United States outstrips supply. 

July 7 

  • Biden Administration announces dissemination of 144,000 doses of JYNNEOS vaccine to combat spread of monkeypox 
  • World Health Organization (WHO) reconvenes the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee to discuss the spread of monkeypox, which earlier declined to label the monkeypox outbreak a public health emergency. 
  • WHO records two confirmed deaths from monkeypox in Africa bringing the total of confirmed deaths from monkeypox in 2022 to three.  
  • It also reported that among cases with available data on gender, 99 percent were in men.  

July 6 

  • The Dominican Republic records first case of monkeypox. 
  • U.S. company Labcorp begins offering monkeypox PCR tests in partnership with the CDC. 

July 5 

  • Panama records first case of monkeypox.  

Week of June 25 to July 1: United States Begins Vaccine Rollout as the WHO Determines Monkeypox is Not a Public Health Emergency 

July 1 

  • Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC) treats monkeypox as a health emergency, even after the WHO declines to label the outbreak as such.  
  • The United States announces the purchase of 2.5 million JYNNEOS vaccines for monkeypox.  

June 30 

  • WHO works to improve surveillance, testing, and genome sequencing of monkeypox in Africa. 
  • Turkey reports first case. 
  • Unusual spread of monkeypox puzzles researchers in the Democratic Republic of Congo where the disease is endemic and researchers have been studying it for decades.

June 28 

  • The Biden Administration announces the first phase of its national monkeypox vaccine strategy involving the dissemination of 56,000 doses of the JYNNEOS vaccine of a planned 300,000 vaccines. 
  • Nigerian health authorities say monkeypox infections in Nigeria could reach a five-year high by the end of 2022. 

June 27 

  • WHO records 3,413 laboratory-confirmed cases and one death from 50 countries and territories since the start of 2022. 

June 25 

  • WHO Emergency Committee determines that monkeypox is not a public health emergency.  

Week of June 18 to June 24: Monkeypox Cases Confirmed in East Asia; United States Expands Testing 

June 24 

June 23 

  • CDC begins exploring whether the monkeypox vaccine is safe and advisable for use in children.  
  • Bulgaria reports first cases.  

June 22 

  • Monkeypox cases confirmed in South Korea and Singapore.  
  • United States expands monkeypox testing capacity as outbreak grows.  

June 21 

  • United Kingdom introduces policy to provide vaccine access to at-risk men in addition to health-care workers and close contacts of those who have contracted the virus.  

June 20 

Week of June 11 to June 17: Wealthy Nations Begin Purchasing Vaccines for Monkeypox 

June 17 

  • WHO records a total of 2,103 laboratory-confirmed cases and one probable case, including one death, in 42 member states. 
  • Serbia and Chile report first cases.  

June 16 

  • WHO Regional Director for Africa announces preparations to procure monkeypox vaccines for African countries.  

June 15 

  • WHO announces the creation of a new vaccine-sharing mechanism to stop the outbreak of monkeypox. 

June 14 

  • WHO expresses intention to rename monkeypox after scientists raise worries over stigmatization and convenes the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee to discuss the spread of monkeypox. 
  • European Union signs deal with Bavarian Nordic for 110,000 monkeypox vaccines.  

Week of June 2 to June 9: Brazil, Ghana, and Morocco Report First Cases 

June 10 

  • WHO records 1,285 laboratory-confirmed cases and one probable case from 28 countries in which monkeypox is not endemic for monkeypox virus since May 13 after 2 cases were reported in Latvia. 
  • Poland confirms first case.  
  • United States purchases 500,000 doses of monkeypox vaccine as the CDC broadens the range of symptoms used to identify monkeypox.  

June 9 

June 8 

June 4 

  • WHO records 780 laboratory-confirmed cases and zero deaths from 27 countries in which monkeypox is not endemic for monkeypox virus since May 13. New countries include Hungary, Ireland, Malta, and Norway.  

June 2 

Week of May 27 to June 1: Monkeypox Reaches Latin America; United Kingdom Issues Its First Monkeypox Vaccines; One Death in Nigeria 

June 1 

  • WHO report suggests that monkeypox may have been circulating undetected in non-endemic countries well before it was first officially recorded.  

May 31 

May 30 

  • Nigeria reports its first confirmed death from monkeypox. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) announced that in 2022 it has confirmed 21 out of 66 suspected cases of the disease. 

May 29 

  • WHO records 257 laboratory-confirmed cases, 120 suspected cases, and zero deaths from 23 countries in which monkeypox is not endemic for monkeypox virus since May 13. 

May 28 

  • Mexico records first case of monkeypox. 

May 27 

  • Spanish LGBTQ advocates express fears about stigmatization of gay men due to monkeypox ahead of Pride events.  
  • Ireland preemptively secures order of monkeypox vaccines.  
  • United Kingdom vaccinates three people who had come in close contact with someone who had monkeypox. 

Week of May 20 to May 26: Wealthy Nations Begin Exploring Testing and Vaccination Options as More Countries Report Cases and in Larger Numbers  

May 26 

  • Tanzanian health authorities issue guidance on monkeypox. 
  • Director of the Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC) makes a statement warning against vaccine hoarding for monkeypox 

May 25 

  • Denmark purchases 200 vaccines from the Netherlands with intention to buy 2,000-3,000 more.  
  • South African public health experts dismiss idea of mass vaccination campaign but say they will remain vigilant. 
  • Cases in France rise from 3 to 5.  
  • Roche Holding AG develops PCR test kits to identify monkeypox. 
  • Spain records 50 cases.  

May 24 

  • Germany purchases 40,000 Bavarian Nordic monkeypox vaccines as a precautionary measure.  
  • Czechia, Slovenia, and the United Arab Emirates report first cases.  
  • French health authority recommends a targeted vaccination campaign to curtail monkeypox. 
  • European Union initiates talks with manufacturers for centralized vaccine purchase. 
  • WHO spokeswoman asserts that the monkeypox outbreak can still be contained.  

May 23 

  • U.S. President Joe Biden says he did not believe a quarantine to prevent the spread of monkeypox in the United States would be necessary, and that there are sufficient vaccine doses available to combat any serious flare-up of the disease. 
  • WHO spokesperson says there is no evidence that monkeypox has mutated. 
  • Portugal reports an additional 14 cases, bringing the total to 37. 
  • Unsubstantiated conspiracy theories suggesting the United States is the culprit behind monkeypox begin to circulate on Chinese social media.  
  • Monkeypox fears fuel stock prices in companies that produce antivirals and vaccines. 
  • Belgium becomes first country to institute monkeypox quarantine.  

May 22 

  • UNAIDS urges media outlets, governments, and communities to respond with a rights-based, evidence-based approach that avoids stigma. 

May 21 

  • WHO records 92 laboratory-confirmed cases and 28 suspected cases from 12 countries in which monkeypox is not endemic for monkeypox virus in Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States since May 13.  
  • Early epidemiology of initial cases notified to WHO by countries shows that cases have been mainly reported amongst men who have sex with men (MSM). 
  • Switzerland reports first case.  

May 20 

Week of May 12 to May 19: Monkeypox Cases Recorded in United Kingdom, Portugal, Italy, and Canada 

May 19 

  • Public health authorities in Canada begin investigating 17 suspected cases of monkeypox in Montreal. The first case in Canada is believed to have appeared on April 29 in a patient who had traveled from the United States.  
  • First draft genome sequence of Monkeypox virus associated with the suspected multicountry outbreak suggests the strain most closely resembles viruses carried by travelers from Nigeria to Singapore, Israel, and the United Kingdom in 2018 and 2019. 
  • Italy reports first confirmed case and two additional suspected cases. 
  • Portugal reports 14 cases and an additional 20 suspected cases after identifying them as the West African strain of monkeypox, which is less severe than the Congo strain. 

May 14 

  • The United Kingdom reports two new cases of monkeypox that do not appear to be related to the first. 

Week of May 7 to May 11: Monkeypox First Identified in a Non-Endemic Country 

May 7 

  • A patient is treated for monkeypox in the United Kingdom by a specialist after returning from travel in Nigeria.  

Lillian Posner is a research associate for Think Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations.


Isabella Turilli is a research associate for global health, economics, and development at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). She has also served extensively as an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) in the District of Columbia, and worked as an EMT instructor and quality improvement officer with Georgetown EMS and the DC Department of Health.

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