Global Health by the Numbers: December 2019
Governance

Global Health by the Numbers: December 2019

Deep dive into data reveals how health influences and interacts with broader social, economic, and demographic trends

Close-up photo of the surface of a silicon semiconductor chip: WELLCOME COLLECTION/Paul Griggs. CC BY
Close-up photo of the surface of a silicon semiconductor chip. WELLCOME COLLECTION/Paul Griggs. CC BY

A regular feature at Think Global Health will be sharing the statistics that convey the ways in which health influences and interacts with broader social, economic, and demographic trends. These numbers will help you understand in quantitative terms the global growth of cities, the mass migration of people, the outcomes of a warming climate, the critical trends in agriculture, the global expansion of supply chains, and the empowerment of women and girls. For our inaugural piece, we will focus on the basics.

Environment

$5.7

        The cost associated with health damage from ambient air pollution is estimated to be $5.7 trillion, equivalent to 4.8 percent of global GDP in 2016. Source: World Bank Group

9

   Estimated premature deaths (in millions) globally caused by pollution in 2015, accounting for 16 percent of all global deaths worldwide. Source: The Lancet Commission on pollution and health

8

   The number of year in the last decade that were designated the hottest year on record. Source: NASA

118.4

          Temperature (°F) in New Delhi on June 10, a record for the city reached amid 2019 heat wave. Source: New York Times

 

Poverty

$1.90

          Threshold income per day for those living in extreme poverty (in 2011 purchasing power parity (PPP) dollars).  Source: World Bank

1.9

     Estimated number of people (in billions) who were living in extreme poverty at $1.90 level, in 1990. Source: World Bank

589

     Estimated number of people (in millions) who were living in extreme poverty at $1.90 level, in 2019. Source: World Bank

6 of 10

            Number of extremely poor people who live in middle-income nations.  Source: New York Times.

 

Trade

29.3%

          Exports of goods and services as a share of GDP, 2017. Source: World Bank Group

48%

      Share of that low- and middle income countries represent in global trade, 2014. Since 1985, that share has doubled. Source: World Bank Group

50

   Number of preferential trade agreements that existed in 1990.  Source: World Bank Group

301

      Number of preferential trade agreements that existed in 2019.  Source: World Trade Organization

1995

         Founding of the World Trade Organization (WTO)

17

    U.S. free trade deals with pharmaceutical protections that go beyond those in WTO agreements. Source: Bollyky & Kesselheim

 

Governance

10

    Percent annual growth in international development assistance for health, 2000-2010. Source: IHME

1.3

     Percent annual growth in international development assistance for health, 2010-2018. Source: Dieleman et al.

1851

         First International Sanitary Conference convenes in Paris.  Source: Fidler

40

   Years since WHO officially certified the eradication smallpox on December 9, 1979.  Source:

WHO Bulletin

14.6

        Millions of people on antiretroviral treatment funded by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the U.S. government's response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Source: U.S. State Department

1948

         World Health Organization founded.

2

  Percent of international development assistance of health that goes to the cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and other noncommunicable diseases that cause the majority of death and disability in low- and middle-income countries. Source: IHME

 

Food

820

      Millions of people suffering from undernourishment worldwide, which is roughly one in every nine people. Source: FAO

25

    Percentage decline in the number of people suffering undernutrition since 2005. Source: FAO

1/3

     Share of food produced for human consumption that is lost or wasted annually— approximately 1.3 billion tons. Source: FAO

70

    Percentage of freshwater use that goes to agriculture globally. Source: World Bank Group.

2

  Billion people are overweight or obese globally, as of 2015.  Source: NEJM

 

Urbanization

55

    Share of world's population residing in urban areas in 2018. Source: UN World Urbanization Prospects.

90

    Expected percentage contribution of Africa and Asia to global urban growth between 2018 and 2050. Source: UN World Urbanization Prospects.

2

  Projected number of people (in billions) who are expected to be living in slums by 2030. Source: Lancet.

 

Aging

2018

        The first year when the number of people over age sixty-five outnumbered people under age five globally. Source: UN Population Prospects.

62

    Percentage of the population under age 25 in sub-Saharan Africa. Source: UN Population Prospects

2039

        Year when the working age population (25-64 years) of Latin America is expected to peak. Source: UN Population Prospects

35%

       Percentage decrease expected in the number of women between the ages 20 and 40 in China by 2050. Source: New York Times.

 

Gender

132

      Millions of girls out of primary and/or secondary school worldwide, in 2016. Source: UNESCO

303,000

               Women who die from complications in pregnancy or childbirth each year. Source: WHO et al.

21

    Proportion of women who have an unmet need for modern contraception in sub-Saharan Africa. South Asia has the absolute number of women (70 million) with unmet need for contraception. Source: Guttmacher Institute

2.7

      Women (in billions) who are legally restricted from same job choices as men. Source: World Bank Group.

 

Migration

258

      Millions of international migrants in 2017. Source: IOM

3.4

     Share that international migrants represent of global population in 2017. Source: IOM

70.8

      Millions of people forcibly displaced worldwide in 2018, the highest levels of displacement on record. Source: UNHCR

15.9

       Millions of refuges living in “protracted situations,” which UNHCR defines as one in which twenty-five thousand or more refugees from the same nationality have been in exile for five consecutive years or more in a given host country. Source: UNHCR

Thomas J. Bollyky is director of the Global Health program and senior fellow for global health, economics, and development at the Council on Foreign Relations.

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